Tuesday, May 19, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"To know anothers heart, you must first know your own.Ã¢â¬ (Laurrel K. Hamilton) Throughout the many vignettes, indirect characterization, vivid imagery and eloquent metaphors are utilized in many ways to create a connection between the characters and the reader. These characters explore sexuality, gender, culture, ethnicity and many more crucial things that are all a part of growing up and figuring out who you are. In CisnerosÃ¢â¬â¢ The House on Mango Street the identity of a character is made up of the environment they are a part of. Gender is one of the most important things that can build up ones true identity. In Mango Street, we see a complete male ruled society. Sexual harassment, from men, is very common in this story, especially toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦They laugh and poke fun at her but thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not the worst of it. Her parents named Esperanza after her grandmother, which should be an honor, yet not to her. She compares her grandmother to the other women she sees on Mango Street like Mamacita who Ã¢â¬Å"sits all day by the window and plays the Spanish radio showsÃ¢â¬ (77). Esperanza is afraid to become submissive to a man or a society that oppresses women, like the one she lives in currently. These have a link to the comparison of Esperanza and her family in relation to the 4 trees. The female role models in her life are all she knows and cannot just forget them easily. Ã¢â¬Å"never quit their anger. This is how they keep.Ã¢â¬ (74) She will always have her roots planted in Mango, and sh e canÃ¢â¬â¢t change that, which is why it is part of building her identity. Esperanza had a great desire to live elsewhere, in Ã¢â¬Å"A real house.Ã¢â¬ (5) While not realizing it then, she had an out from the hardships of living on Mango. Esperanza wrote and wrote to dealwith what she dealt with. Ã¢â¬Å"You must keep writing. It will keep you free,Ã¢â¬ (61) In time she figures out that some people donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a way to manage what they go through. EsperanzaÃ¢â¬â¢s mother has a coping method also, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s drawing; with a needle. Ã¢â¬Å"She draws with a needle and thread.Ã¢â¬ (90) The realization that she is lucky enough to be able to handle Mango street and itÃ¢â¬â¢s quirks builds character in Esperanza. She is able to appreciate what she has, yet it is also saddening to know that some are not as
Malapropism: The mistaken use of a word in place of a similar-sounding one, often with unintentionally amusing effect. Ã¢â¬Å"SheÃ¢â¬â¢s so bipolar.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"HeÃ¢â¬â¢s antisocial.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"My O.C.D. is kicking in.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m claustrophobic.Ã¢â¬ None of these sentences seem strange. As a matter of fact these statements have become so common that most people neglect to look into their meanings. Words such as Ã¢â¬Å"depressionÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"claustrophobicÃ¢â¬ are used very frequently and are most likely used incorrectly. Many terms that are meant to diagnose psychiatric patients are being used very lightly in colloquial speech due to ignorance. Ignorance meaning lack of knowledge, not insolence. Bipolar Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Antisocial Personality Disorder and Phobias have been researched through the study of Abnormal Psychology. Abnormal Psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on unusual behaviors and psychopathy. (Campbell,) With the help of the DSM-V (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Fifth Edition) and CampbellÃ¢â¬â¢s Psychiatric Dictionary, all of these familiar terms will be broken down by the end of this text. SheÃ¢â¬â¢s So Bipolar Bipolar Illness: affective (mood) disorder characterized by episodes of both mania and depression. (Campbell, 86) Also known as Manic-depressive disorder, bipolar disorder is a mood disorder that is categorized by episodes of mania and depression. (Campbell,86) A common misconception of bipolar disorder is that the mood changes are very rapid.Show MoreRelatedThe Perception Of Abnormal Psychology2044 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagescolloquial speech due to ignorance. Ignorance meaning lack of knowledge, not insolence. Bipolar Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Antisocial Personality Disorder and Phobias have been researched through the study of Abnormal Psychology. Abnormal Psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on unusual behaviors and psychopathy. (Campbell,) With the help of the DSM-V (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Fifth Edition) and CampbellÃ¢â¬â¢s Psychiatric Dictionary, all of these familiarRead MorePerception Of Abnormal Psychology And Psychopathology774 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesof abnormal psychology and psychopathology and the implicit assumptions of both terms. Considering abnormal psychology is an alternative definition of psychopathology, it is assumed they are different in the eyes of society. Psychopathology is a term focused on the psyche (mind, soul) and a disorder (dysfunction, diseased, unhealthy and illness). It is also based from deviations from statistical and social norms along with maladaptive behavior, distress and impairment. Although abnormal psychologyRead MoreNormal vs. Abnormal Psychology700 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesNormal v. Abnormal Psychology: Normal and abnormal psychology is based on the theory of perception whereby some changes are detected in the body such as the color of the body, its figure, shape, and size. Since the changes named above have been working hand in hand, it has not been easy to separate them but its only the color that cannot be experienced without raising some questions. Perception can also be based on the mental act, which is described as the kind of approach that an individual takesRead MoreAbnormal Psychology and Therapy: Physical Illnesses and Disorders1228 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAbnormal Psychology and Therapy If you have an infection, you go to the doctor. There are many different treatments for any number of physical illnesses and disorders, but what if the illness or disorder is in your mind? For psychology to have any validity as a science, research must show there is a common way to think, react, and feel amongst humans; uniform mental processes. So far, research has shown that one can study the behaviors of a small group and compare them to a larger population;Read MorePsychology Is The Scientific Study Of The Mind And Behavior986 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesA Look into Psychology Psychology is known to be the scientific study of the humanÃ¢â¬â¢s mind and behavior. Psychology is not the study of extraordinary mind activity like paranormal, extrasensory perception (ESP), astrology, nor phrenology. Psychology is theoretically constructed and uses a standard scientific process to discover evidences of that humanÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior. Psychology also allows an individual to give special assistance to a specific group of children who could have a difficult time in schoolRead MoreAdolescent Psychology Essay 31067 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesQuestion: What Is Psychology? One of the most common questions asked by students new to the study of psychology is What is psychology? Misperceptions created by popular media as well as the diverse careers paths of those holding psychology degrees have contributed this confusion. Psychology is both an applied and academic field that studies the human mind and behavior. Research in psychology seeks to understand and explain thought, emotion, and behavior. Applications of psychology include mentalRead MorePsy 300 Complete Course Material a+Work Essay993 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagespost your responses in the DQ threads. Then comment on otherÃ¢â¬â¢s responses in the Main forum. Responses to each question should be at least 200-300 words. PSY 300 Week 1 DQ 2 In what ways do you see psychology used in the environment where you work? PSY 300 Week 1 Individual Foundations of Psychology Paper PSY 300 Week 2 DQs PSY 300 Week 2 DQ 1 How do classical conditioning procedures differ from operant conditioning procedures? How are they similar? In your opinion, which learning process isRead MoreNature Vs Nurture Debate Essay965 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe oldest arguments in the history of psychology is the Nature vs Nurture discussion. Both are legitimate and it is very hard to decide whether a personÃ¢â¬â¢s development is prone to his DNA or influenced by his life experience and environment. Presently, nature and nurture both play important role in human development. However what remains unknown is if human is developed solely because of nature or nurture. . As of now, we know that both nature and nurture play important roles in human developmentRead MoreSymptoms And Symptoms Of Abnormal Psychology1527 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAccording to Cherry (2016), abnormal psychology is a branch within psychology that focuses on behaviour that is unusual and not deemed as normal within society. This branch of psychology is compo sed of a variety of disorders and their causes as well as possible management and/or treatment. With this in mind and within this assignment, I will discuss the causes of abnormal behaviour, discuss the causes and symptoms of mood disorder as well as discuss the background and importance of Sigmund FreudRead MoreDescribe and Evaluate Psychological Definitions of Abnormal Behavior749 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesDescribe and evaluate psychological definitions of abnormal behavior According to the science of psychology oneÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior needs to follow a certain criteria in order to be deemed Ã¢â¬Å"normalÃ¢â¬ . If oneÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior does not match the criteria, their behavior is seen as undesirable and wrong (requires change). For this physiologists need to be able to view a personÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior and be able to tell the difference between normal and abnormal. Whilst defining the Ã¢â¬Å"normalityÃ¢â¬ of ones behavior physiologists
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Decay of a Dream in The Great Gatsby The central theme of The Great Gatsby is the decay of the American Dream. Through his incisive analysis and condemnation of 1920s high society, Fitzgerald (in the person of the novelÃ ¹s narrator, Nick Carraway) argues that the American Dream no longer signifies the noble pursuit of progress; instead, it has become grossly materialistic and corrupt. FitzgeraldÃ ¹s novel is structured as an allegory (a story that conceals another story): the terrible death of Jay Gatsby is, by extension, the death of the American Dream. For Fitzgerald, the true American Dream is characterized by a spirit of perseverance and hope; through these, one can succeed against all odds. This ideal isÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Involuntarily I glanced seaward -- and distinguished nothing except a single green light, minute and far away, that might have been the end of the dock. Gatsbys dedication to an ethereal ideal elevates him above his shallow, vulgar contemporaries. His longing for Daisy is like that celebrated by the medieval ideal of courtly love, in which a knight worshipped his lady without any hope of being loved in return; his every action was only for her, and he strove to lead a noble life in the hopes of becoming worthy of her. Daisy is GatsbyÃ ¹s ideal: we first see him reaching toward the green light that marks her house in East Egg; in the final days of his life, he waits unwearyingly outside Daisys house for hours despite the fact that she has already decided to abandon him. Though Gatsby exemplifies the purest elements of the old dream, he cannot help but fail in his pursuit of it, since the woman he loves is a corrupt product of modern society. For Fitzgerald, the American obsession with wealth, power, and privilege is the chief cause of the decay of dreaming. Gatsby earns his money through illegal practices; his ostentatious parties, garish mansion, and lavish clothing are all attempts to win the attention of the cruel and shallow Daisy, who cares only for money. He ceases to throw hisShow MoreRelated Destruction and Failure of a Generation in FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s The Great Gatsby1413 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Great Gatsby and the Destruction of a Generation Ã Ã Ã The beauty and splendor of Gatsbys parties masks the decay and corruption that lay at the heart of the Roaring Twenties. The society of the Jazz Age, as observed by Fitzgerald, is morally bankrupt, and thus continually plagued by a crisis of character. Jay Gatsby, though he struggles to be a part of this world, remains unalterably an outsider. His life is a grand irony, in that it is a caricature of Twenties-style ostentation: his closetRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald992 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Jazz Age was a period of great economic, social, and political change happening in the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s. The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, however, sees in this a time of boundaryless death, and urban decimation. The Great Gatsby is modeled towards the death of the American dream during the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s. Based on the happening of the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s, this model is certainly reasonable. F. Scott Fitzgerald and The Great Gatsby use the motifs of materialism, carele ssness, and decay seen in the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s in order toRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1318 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesto write about the usage of symbols in F. Scott FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s The Great Gatsby. There are many symbols used in the book The Great Gatsby such as the green light, the valley of ashes, and the eyes of Doctor T.J. Eckleburg. The green light represents Jay GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s hopes, as well as his dreams, for the future. Because many people strive to become rich in The Great Gatsby, the result is moral and social decay. The valley of ashes represents social and moral decay, and it also represents the predicamentRead MoreSymbolism And Symbolism Of The Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald993 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagespiece of great literature authors use symbols to convey a feeling or thought. The novel, For example, Lord the Flies, William Golding memorably uses a conch shell to represent order and the destruction of order. Or in To Kill a Mockingbird, Harper L ee uses the physical and metaphoric sense of the mockingbird to convey the idea of innocence and the loss of innocence. In The Great Gatsby, F. Scott Fitzgerald employs the use of symbols to enhance a tragic tale of the corruption and decay of the AmericanRead More Failure and Destruction of a Romantic Ideal in FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s The Great Gatsby1639 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Great Gatsby and the Destruction of a Romantic Ideal Ã Ã Ã In The Great Gatsby, F. Scott Fitzgerald tells the story of a romantic ideal and its ultimate destruction by the inexorable rot and decay of modern life. The story is related by Nick Carraway, who has taken a modest rental house next door to Jay Gatsbys mansion. Jay Gatsby is a young millionaire who achieves fabulous wealth for the sole purpose of recapturing the love of his former sweetheart, Daisy Fay Buchanan. Five years priorRead MoreThe Decay of American Dream in The Great Gatsby1289 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Decay of American Dream in The Great Gatsby The American Dream is a worldwide known idiom and it emphasizes an ideal of a successful and happy lifestyle which is oftentimes symbolized by the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"from rags-to-richesÃ¢â¬ . It originated out of the ideal of equality, freedom and opportunity that is held to every American. In the last couple of decades the main idea of the American Dream has shifted to becoming a dream in which materialistic values are of a higher importance and status. TheRead More Symbols and Symbolism in The Great Gatsby Essay1207 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSymbolism in The Great Gatsby Ã Ã FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s The Great Gatsby has more relevance in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society than it did when it was written. With the recent societal trend that emphasizes lack of morals and material wealth over a meaningful existence, FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s message really hits home. Which is more important - money or love? Social status or being true to oneself? Fitzgerald uses metaphor and symbols to great effect in order to illustrate what can happen when the pursuit of happinessRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald Essay1546 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageshad seen before. In The Great Gatsby, F. Scott Fitzgerald imbues a story with many themes and qualities from his own life, reflected in the parallels between his own history and that of Gatsby and Nick Carraway. With new, unbridled, booming economic growth, what started as the Great American Dream became a vulgar, empty, greedy pursuit of material goods. On top of this rise in national wealth, the addition of disillusioned Worl d War I veterans looking to grab the American Dream and use it to hoist themselvesRead MoreThe Decay Of The American Dream816 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Decay of the American Dream The novel, Ã¢â¬Å"The Great GatsbyÃ¢â¬ , by F. Scott Fitzgerald, features the decay of the American dream during the 1920s. It is a critique of human actions and hypocrisy, with the main character being Jay Gatsby, a rich man who pines for his lost love Daisy. During the 1920s, America suffered the great stock market crash, which led to the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s despair. Fitzgerald mirrors this event through GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s great loss. At that time, America was full of distinct social classesRead MoreWhat Techniques Does Fitzgerald Use to Convey the Main Themes in the Great Gatsby1638 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Great Gatsby Ã¢â¬Å"What techniques does Fitzgerald use to convey the central ideas of The Great Gatsby?Ã¢â¬ The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald is primarily a social commentary on the state of American society during the post-war period of unprecedented affluence and prosperity. Fitzgerald depicts 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s America as an age of decline in traditional social and moral values; primarily evidenced by the cynicism, greed and the relentless yet empty pursuit of prosperity and pleasure that various characters
In James Q. WilsonÃ¢â¬â¢s New York Times article, Ã¢â¬Å"Just Take Away Their Guns,Ã¢â¬ Wilson sufficiently reasons how the elimination of illegal guns on the streets should be the central focus in determining the limits regarding American gun control regulations which are frequently debated in our modern world. While Wilson makes an effective argument, at times, he racially profiles which is a definite form of deceptive reasoning; in addition, many of WilsonÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments lack the elaboration he needs to avoid making hasty assertions. Wilson argues in his essay that not allowing people to buy guns will have no effect on the illegal use of guns, which in essence, is the sole reasoning for wanting to eliminate guns in the first place. He makes the claimÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦However, when making this point, Wilson alludes to the idea of the effectiveness of racial profiling. When making this claim on the effectiveness of employing more frequent, random searches, Wilson concedes that even though, Ã¢â¬Å"innocent people will be stopped,Ã¢â¬ and, Ã¢â¬Å"young black and Hispanic men will probably be stopped more than older white Anglo males and women of any race,Ã¢â¬ these searches are the only means by which we can eliminate illegal guns on the streets. Instead of analyzing the likely effects of this racial profiling on racial relations, Wilson uses circular reasoning to come to a conclusion that he has already previously made without exploring other options. Ã¢â¬Å"If we are serious about reducing drive- by shootings, fatal gang-wars and lethal quarrels in public places,Ã¢â¬ Wilson concludes that the only way is through these random searches regardless of whether or not racial profiling comes into play. By reasoning in such a manner, Wilson loses credibility and his argument suffers for this. This specific point brings to mind more questions that Wilson lacks the answers to. In this argument that police should be taught to be able to spot people that look like they are carrying guns, Wilson does not elaborate on how this would be possible. This jump in his reasoning leaves his argument a little patchy in the sense that it is hard to buy into a plan that has noShow MoreRelatedJust Take Away Their Guns955 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesClick-Clack-Bow! This is the noise of gun going off, something that is heard everyday. This very noise not only injures people, but it causes innocent people to die. Guns are the number one cause of leading deaths today. According to James Q. Wilson article Ã ¢â¬Å"Just Take Away Their Guns,Ã¢â¬ Wilson states that both the President and public want tougher gun control laws (125). The only difference is that the public believes that it wonÃ¢â¬â¢t change anything. Wilson also believes that it would take a politically impossibleRead MoreJust Take Away Their Guns : A Critical Analysis1229 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages 2015 Just Take away Their Guns: A Critical Analysis by Dr. Justin Barnard Ã¢â¬Å"Legal restraints on the lawful purchase of guns will have little effect on the legal use of gunsÃ¢â¬ (pg.125). Author James Q. Wilson, a professor of management and public policy at the University of California in Los Angeles writes the article Ã¢â¬Å"Just Take Away Their GunsÃ¢â¬ to provide the American public with evidence of why taking away their guns will have little effect on crime in the United States. Ã¢â¬Å"Just Take Away Their GunsÃ¢â¬ Read More Contrast Essay Between essays Just Take Away Thier Guns and I Want A Wife1805 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Just Take Away Their Guns is an effective argument than I Want a Wife. James Wilson gives a more factual, organizational and better language used argument than Judy Brady. In I Want a Wife Brady is stereotypical of what she believes to be the roles of the husband and wife. Also Bradys essay is one sided, she never states a side that would argue her viewpoint. While Wilson shows two clearly stated sides of his argument. The first reason as to why ?Just Take Away Their Guns? is moreRead MoreGun Control Essay1155 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesGun Control in America Gun control recently has become a more serious problem in the eyes of the government. It is true that guns kill people, but so do bombs and car crashes. Guns do not shoot themselves, someone has pull the trigger. The problem with guns is not that they exist, but that people have started to misuse them more and more. Taking away guns would cause more problems than keeping them would. Guns are not just used for harming people, hunting also requires guns. Hunting is a very popularRead MoreWhat Would The World Be Like If Guns Were Banned?1062 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWhat would the world be like if guns were banned? Would chaos break out, or would the United States have peace? The Second Amendment grants U.S. Citizens the right to keep and bear arms. While some people believe banning guns will make the world safer, others believe the world will only be in more danger. Prohibition did not work for alcohol and drugs, so why would it work for guns? Guns should not be banned because crime rate would increase, people need guns for self-defense, and it will eliminateRead MoreThe Government Should Not Control Over Our Guns Essay727 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesDraegan Eng 101 30526 24 June 2015 Gun Control Ã¢â¬Å"These kids spend a majority of their time in school, and if theyÃ¢â¬â¢re not having a positive experience, they can become depressed. In some cases, they lash out, grabbing whatever weapon is available to them. It can be an assault rifle, a knife, a Molotov cocktail, poison, Indian burns or MMA. But if you take one weapon away, these kids are just going to grab the next thing available to them. Maybe they will use a gun with a smaller clip, limiting the amountRead MoreIs Gun Control the Answer? Essay1422 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesinvolving firearms the focus is turned to gun control. This has turned the issue of gun control into a major debate in our nation. When it comes to taking a side on the issue many people decide completely on an emotional level instead of looking at the issue rationally. People think that solving violent crimes involving guns is as easy as taking away the guns. How do you go about taking guns away if that is the solution, or what will the effects be of t aking guns away from people who donÃ¢â¬â¢t use them forRead MoreThe Meaning of the Second Amendment - The Right To Bear Arms Essay1169 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesessential rights of the people They believed so strongly that we needed the right to have guns that they put it second in the Bill of Rights. When the Bill of Rights was written it was after Americans had gone through tyranny of Great Britain. The founding fathers did not want what the rights of free people taken away again. They were also afraid that a centralized government could over throw the people and take over without a fight. The founding fathers wanted the people to be able to fight for freedomRead MoreGun Laws Should Not Be Banned1426 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesanother gun control debate comes spiraling from the after math as laws against guns try to be placed. Is this really the best way to deal with the issue? No. The issue is people are killing people not guns are killing people. Society wants to ban guns because people are afraid when in actuality guns themselves are not the things that need to be banned. Even then do you have any proof the gun laws actually lower crime? Gun laws also go directly against the 2nd Amendment and it takes away one of theRead MoreThe Debate Over Gun Control939 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGun Control Close your eyes and relax. Imagine that you are in a time of 236 years ago, and imagine that you are one of the few people that had the privilege of writing the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s constitution. It would not take long until you get to the second amendment. This amendment reads Ã¢â¬Å"A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringedÃ¢â¬ (Davis). This amendment has extreme importance, and should not be
Question: Discuss about thePersonal Communication Appropriatenessfor Emails or Memos. Answer: Personal communication is the exchange of information or message between two or more parties either by word of mouth, emails or memos. This type of communication may use either wired or wireless media or even face to face interaction. Personal communication is useful and an essential component as it makes life easy and enables individuals to take advantages of available opportunities decisively (Burnard, 2017). In addition to making life easy for individuals, personal communication helps people to identify their weaknesses and make changes where necessary. This paper focus on my competencies in communication, how I can apply problem-solving skills and different dimensions to improve my communication competencies in daily activities and across different environments. Secondly, the paper includes a schedule on how I plan to address my weaknesses that I might have and how this will be achieved (Hoppe, 2015). Diagnosis and Reflection. Johari Window This is an effective technique that aids individuals to better assess their interaction within themselves and with other individuals. I applied this useful tool to identify adjectives that reflect my personality. This was accomplished by assigning five of my friends a task to identify the attributes that they felt best to fit my competencies in communication. After identification, the results obtained from this exercise were tabulated to gauge my communication competence. The first thing that came out in the first column of the grid was that I was organized, confident and conscious about others. The results also showed that I was authoritative in my interactions. According to Biafore, (2013), self-confidence is crucial in enhancing effective personal communication Secondly, from the grid, results showed that I am full of ideas, relatively quiet, tense in some instances and carry myself with a lot of pride. Third column results had mixed reactions; that I am unintentionally introvert and at times cheerful sociable person. Thirdly, my patient and tolerance were viewed differently by different people with some of my friends feeling that I exercise a lot of patience, generous and open to changes. However, a few felt I am impatient and intolerance when it comes to judging other peoples opinions. The last thing that they found out was my calmness and kindness which showed I am a sensible person (Reinsch Shelby, 2014). Communications Style Questionnaire Communication style analysis tries to evaluate and understand different communication styles applied by various individuals during interactions every day. The study is very helpful in analyzing different contexts as applied in any conversation. Additionally, the study helps one in identifying any weaknesses or strengths in order to make necessary adjustments. Results obtained from this study are tabulated below. From the study results, it is clear that during all my interactions, I express a lot of confidence and self-awareness. Self-confidence was the main reason why I won the hearts of many who felt I am trustworthy and could be relied upon. However, I had several weaknesses. Poor listening skills were cited as a major negative trait with results showing that I never pay attention to other people and that I dominated conversations never giving others a chance to be heard. Nevertheless, the results depicted me as a keen to detail individual. According to De (2013), keen to detail is essential in analyzing feedback and implications in conversations. Assertiveness Questionnaires An assertive questionnaire is a crucial tool that can effectively help individuals to improve their learning experience by creating a relieved communication regardless of one's disposition. One way is by giving individuals enough space to express themselves confidently during conversations while creating room for others to air their opinions too. By use of collaborative research website, I was able to gauge the level of my personal communication skills where results showed that in addition to listening and accommodating other peoples opinions, I was able to effectively express myself. However, there is more effort required to be an effective communicator as the scale showed there is still some weaknesses before attaining a perfect score. In a scale of A to E, where A is perfect and E is very poor, I scored a B which showed that I still need to improve my listening skills. The Communication Quiz The quiz essentially gauges individuals communication skills and put more emphasis on how people give their feedback during conversations. Based on this quiz, my practical approach in classroom interaction still needs some improvement. Procrastination of ideas and failure to incorporate symbolic and non-verbal communication were some of the major weaknesses. Nevertheless, it was clear that I was focused and frequently anticipated possible causes of confusion which helped me to arrest the situation in good time. Personal Reflection The ability to reflect on oneself is what is called personal reflection. It is a very important aspect of academic learning as it assists in developing leadership skills. During academic activities, it is very important for n individual to be able to reflect on themselves. Personal reflection entails evaluating one's attitudes, behaviors, and decisions. After carrying out personal reflection on myself I realized that I was more reserved than I thought. I was not good at jumping at new opportunities or trying out new things. My fear of failure and disappointments has at one point or another limited by thinking and participation in activities that would have been very beneficial. In my interactions with people, I realized that I have a hard time listening and paying attention. I talk in groups, more than I listen. This may have limited my ability to learn from others during school discussion groups and other learning activities. Literature Review It is very important and crucial that I work on my listening skills, as well as my confidence issues. This is because all my peers submitted results to me that showed that I have a great weakness in these areas. As shown by studies, the feedback given by a person is influenced by various factors some of which include; psychological condition or status of an individual and also the self-perception of that individual. A person who is confident about themselves is more likely to present themselves in a pleasant and composed manner, unlike a person who is not comfortable in their own skin. People who are confident about themselves do not worry too much because they know they can handle almost any situation. Biafore (2013). It is therefore very important for an individual to be in control of themselves in terms of psychological stability and confidence. This is because it is these traits that influence the outside behavior of an individual. The only way to deal with such issues is to be aware of one's strengths and weaknesses. When one is aware of themselves, they are able to interact more freely with other people. Knowing one's strengths helps to enable a person to portray their strengths as well as utilize them effectively during a learning process. Knowing one's weaknesses is also very important because it enables a person to deal with the weaknesses, and bridge the gap that is brought about by those weaknesses. According to studies by De (2013), failure to be aware of one's strengths and weaknesses may make a person be uncertain about themselves while in front of others. Active Listening Active listening is also another major aspect of learning. I, however, realized that I am a very poor listener. This often makes it difficult for me to concentrate in my conversations with others. I tend to talk more than I listen and this has ended up affecting my relationships with people. It becomes even difficult to learn new ideas because I do not take the time to listen actively (Koprowska, 2015). In class, I am also unable to listen actively. I have also realized that my concentration level even in class is very low. It is therefore difficult for me to learn new things. This is not good and I have decided to work on this weakness using the following mechanism; Paying Attention Paying attention involves focusing and putting one's mind into something or someone while he or she is speaking. It involves not only listening to them but trying to comprehend what they are saying. It involves being attentive and gathering information from both the verbal and the nonverbal cues. It involves maintaining eye contact during conversations and avoiding any thoughts that may distract the attention. Showing that am Listening Another way to improve my active listening skills is by letting the other party know that am listening to them. Maintaining eye contact, nodding my head and avoiding any distractions are some of the ways of encouraging the other party to keep talking by showing them that their information is being received and understood. Providing Feedback The communication process is never complete without feedback. This is because it is only feedback that enables the person talking to know that the message was relayed successfully. Feedback can be provided during a conversation using body language like nodding one's head in agreement or by using verbal means. One may ask relevant questions in areas that were not clear and that shows that one was actively listening. According to Green and Chartered Institute of Public Relations 2016, creating a summary of things learned during a conversation or a lesson helps to revise the points later, and that is part of active listening. Assertive Perception The assessment revealed the aggressive side of my nature. Being too much aggressive makes one to sideline and always question other peoples opinions. This often leads to one disagree with others without any valuable reason. This creates a need to adopt an assertive nature rather than a more aggressive one. Among the measures to achieve this include being tolerant and considerate to other peoples opinions so as to avoid unnecessary confrontations. Avoiding reference to past experiences with this people will also curb this undesirable nature (De, 2013). A recognition of various individual differences is also core in ensuring a peaceful co-existence with others. This can be done by allowing others opinions to be surfaced and making considerations on these opinions before making a conclusion. By so doing it not only ensures a constructive and conducive conversation but also mutual understanding between one another with respect to ones individual character (Myers Myers, 2015). Communication and interactions act as a learning process hence they are significant in a learning environment. Therefore this creates the need to come up with relevant strategies and procedures to improve on ones way of interaction with others for an effective communication process. Interaction with others should also be treated with the seriousness it deserves as it is part of the learning process hence measures and strategies should be put in place to improve our way of interaction (Green Chartered Institute of Public Relations, 2016). Action Plan An action plan to realize the above stipulated strategies has to be drawn and implemented on the basis of achieving the set goals and objectives. To achieve this, the action plan has to work on the timelines below; Developing listening and speaking skills through by undertaking a communication course as part of the implementation process. The course should be taken within the first three weeks of the implementation process so as to effectively and efficiently develop the necessary skills for effective communication and interaction with others (Craig Martinez, 2016). Employment is one of the motivation and the driving force for many people. Communication is crucial when seeking for employment thus creating the need for one to learn how to achieve effective and efficient communication. To solve this I plan on enrolling for a postgraduate communication course at CQU. This will ensure I improve on my communication skills so as to fit into the employment sector (Drury, 2014) Reading of various resources such as articles and books also enables one to develop on his/her communication strategies hence to build on this I will consult various learning resources and reading materials available at my disposal and try and apply the experience and skills on this readings in different environments. Most of these materials will give you guidelines on how to ensure an effective and efficient communication therefore I will strive to acquire and refer to these materials within the first four weeks (Brown Smith, 2017). To monitor my progress I will make use of a diary to record my progress and highlight on the areas I have tackled in trying to achieve effective communication and what areas are no yet handled. It will also indicate areas that need some changes so as to achieve the set goals and objectives of the course. Mentoring is required for one to successfully be able to attain the set standards of effective and efficient communication. To achieve this I will consult the head of the CQU department as my mentor so as to give me directions and instructions towards achieving my communication goals and objectives. This will help ensure that I am in the correct track and where I need to improve in order to achieve good results (Battell American Society for Training and Development, 2016). The Gantt Chart An application of The Gantt Chart is necessary in this case as it shows the beginning and the end of the project. This chart will measure my achievements over the period of two months that I have been working on the project so as to indicate whether there was positive or negative change during the implementation process of achieving effective and efficient communication. I case of a negative indication it will signal that much is to be done on the strategies applied in the implementation process. This means that I will have to work harder in the way I interact with others to achieve good communication skills. References Active listening: Teacher's book. (1995). Cambridge [u.a.: Cambridge Univ. Press [u.a. Battell, C., American Society for Training and Development. (2016). Effective listening. Alexandria, Va: ASTD Press. Biafore, B. (2013). Microsoft Project 2013: The missing manual. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly Media. Brown, S., Smith, D. (2017). Active listening: Level 1. Cambridge [England: Cambridge University Press Burnard, P. (2017). Effective communication skills for health professionals. Cheltenham, U.K: Stanley Thornes (Publishers) Ltd. Burstein, J. (2013). Have you heard? Active listening. New York: Crabtree Pub. Company. Craig, S. C., Martinez, M. D. (2016). Ambivalence and the Structure of Political Opinion. New York: Palgrave Macmillan De, K. E. J. (2013). Assertive religion: Religious intolerance in a multicultural world. Drury, S. S. (2014). Assertive supervision: Building involved teamwork. Champaign, IL: Research Press Eemeren, F. H., Grootendorst, R. (2014). Studies in pragma-dialectics. Amsterdam: International Centre for the Study of Argumentation. Green, A., Chartered Institute of Public Relations. (2016). Effective personal Communication skills for public relations. London: Kogan Page. Hazardous Materials Training and Research Institute. (2015). Communication skills for the Environmental technician. New York: Wiley. Hoppe, M. H. (2015). Active Listening: Improve Your Ability to Listen and Lead. New York, NY: John Wiley Sons. In Flanagan, R., In Allen, K., In Levine, E. (2015). Cognitive and behavioral Interventions in the schools: Integrating theory and research into practice Eemeren, F. H., Grootendorst, R. (2014). Speech acts in argumentative discussions: A Theoretical model for the analysis of discussions directed towards solving conflicts of opinion. Dordrecht, Holland: Foris Publications. Koprowska, J. (2015). Communication and interpersonal skills in social work. Exeter:Learning Matters. Myers, M.T., Myers, G.E. (2015). Managing by communication: An organizational approach. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York. Philipsen, G. (2014). Speaking culturally: Explorations in social communication. Albany, NY:State University of New York Press. Reinsch, N. L. Jr., Shelby, A. N. (2013). Communication challenges and needs: Perceptions of MBA students. Business Communication Quarterly 59(1), 36-53. Reinsch, N. L. Jr., Shelby, A. N. (2014). What communication abilities do practitioners need? Evidence from MBA students. Business Communication Quarterly 60(4), 7-29.
Question: Briefly describe the organization and its industry. Identify the vision statement, mission statement and statement of values; explain their appropriateness for the organization; suggest potential improvements. Identify the objectives; analyse their appropriateness for the organization; suggest potential improvements, or develop some appropriate objectives and discuss why they are applicable. Undertake an internal analysis of the organization and an analysis of its external environment using appropriate strategic management tools. Develop an appropriate strategy for the organization. Make sure you explain why the strategy is relevant and how it relates to vision/mission/objectives. Answer: Introduction: Strategic management is associated with the identification and description of the strategies that needed to be carried out the managers or decision makers of the business organizations. The competition of all types of industries has been increased in the recent years. As a result, the key of achieving the success in any business is to get the sustainable competitive advantage through effective business strategy (Rosenbaum-Elliott et al. 2015). In order to develop a proper business strategy for an organization, the managers need to understand the situation of the company and the business environment. This will help them to understand the exact requirements of the business operations of the company and the target market of the business (Percy and Rosenbaum-Elliott 2016). In this context, the analysis of the internal and external environment of an organization is very important for developing a proper strategy for the business operations of an organization. In this report, the strategic management of Jayco Corporation Pty Ltd has been analyzed. In this context, the description of the organization and the industry, in which it is conducting its business have been analyzed first in the report. After that the mission, vision and objectives are also given for analyzing the goal of the business operations of the organization. In the later section of the report, the internal and external environment of the organization have been analyzed and a strategy has been recommended for the sustainable development of the business operations of the organization. The strategy has been developed on the basis of the outcomes of the internal and external environment analysis of the organization. Background of the Organization: The selected organization for this report is the Jayco Corporation Pty Ltd, which is a recreation car manufacturer. The company is known as the best caravan manufacturer company in Australia. The company was established in the year of 1968 by Lloyd Jay Bontrager. The company has developed many innovative car models in the journey to this time from the past era. The headquarters of the company are situated in Middlebury,Indiana and USA. This is the largest manufacture of the recreation vehicles in Australia and the position of the company in the whole world is third. The company have made over 60000 vehicles in the 42 years of journey. At present the company is conducting their business activities over the international market. They have more than 2000 employees in the different section of their business area. Jayco Corporation Pty Ltd gives high priority to the customers. Once a customer buys a car from the company, they used to add the customer in the Jayco family and consider him or her with high values. Currently they are focus in the area of the customer centric business for capturing the highest position in the world as the recreation vehicles manufacturing. Background of the Industry: The company chosen for this report is a recreation vehicle manufacturer company. The demand of the recreation vehicles in Australia is very high. The country is very popular for the natural beauty of many places. The tourism business is in very high demand in the country. The people of the country are highly interested in travel and tourism (Ibisworld.com.au 2016). The popularity of the enjoyment through some activities, which are different from the daily routine of the common people, has been increased in high level in the modern world. This is one of the main reason of the high level of popularity of the recreation vehicles in the country. The high demand is indicating towards the high future growth and opportunity of the manufacturing companies. Due to the high demand of the products and good future opportunity of the products of the industry, the market is full of competition. The companies, which are developing the recreation vehicles are facing tough market completion in the target market in Australia (Hitt, Ireland and Hoskisson 2012). In this context, the sustainable competitive advantage gaining is very important for the companies to get the desired level of success in their business (Brown, Bessant and Lamming 2013). The research and development activities with high level of innovation are required for achieving the high level of success in the business in the recreation vehicle industry. Mission and Vision of the Organization: The mission of the company is to provide the best product to the employees as the recreation vehicles. The slogan used by the company for the promotion is Generations of Family Fun (Jayco.com.au 2016). The aim of the company is to give the maximum scope of family fun in their products, i.e., the recreation vehicles. The company is also cares for the customers (Wilson and Gilligan 2012). They used to give high values to the people who are using their cars for developing a good brand image in the target market. Therefore, the mission statement of the company should be Jayco Corporation has the aim of providing the best environment for fun in recreation vehicles with the best customer support. The vision of the company is to be the worlds largest recreation vehicles manufacturing company. It has already gained the first position in the home country and the third position in the whole world in the recreation vehicles manufacturing industry. Therefore, now the vision is growing more in their business and achieve first position in the whole world among all the recreation vehicle manufacturing companies (Jayco.com.au 2016). The vision statement of the company To build memories that last a lifetime. The companies value of working are associated with the Teamwork, Pride, Innovation, Reward and Recognition with proper planning and systems. The employees of the company are working by following proper plan and innovative way as a team for achieving the corporate goal of the company (Jayco.com.au 2016). Objectives: In order to fulfill the missions and going towards the vision of the company, it has to expand their target market and develop a very good brand image in the whole world. In this context, it has to develop a good business strategy based on the following objectives. To provide the most expected and valuable products and services to the customers To develop a very good brand image and a good customer base To provide the most innovative recreation vehicles To be the no. 1 recreation vehicle brand in the whole world Internal Environment Analysis (SWOT): Strengths: 2 year warranty from Jayco: The company provides a warranty period of two years from the manufacturer end not the dealer. This is a great opportunity to the users of the vehicles of the company that the manufacturer is giving this warranty. They dont harass the customers for claiming the warranty in case of any hazard (Jayco.com.au 2016). 1 year free access to its Customer First Roadside Assistance program: This is also helping the company to attract the customers towards the services of the company and developing a good brand image in the target market (Jayco.com.au 2016). Integrated manufacturing in Australia: The company has its integrated manufacturing unit in the country, which is helping them to provide the products to the customers in less price and shorter time. Green Initiative: The environmental development is a major concern of the company. They are developing eco-friendly fuel efficient cars, which is helping the company to reduce the carbon emissions by the products and the customers to save their money for fuels. Weaknesses: No direct customer interaction: The company dont interact with the customers directly. The corporate dealers of the cars of the company are the medium of communication between the manufacturer and the customers of the cars of the company. This is one of the main weakness of the company as the customers perception is very vital to be understood for providing best satisfactory services to them (Hill, Jones and Schilling, 2014). Rising labor costs: The manufacturing of the recreation vehicles is associated with the efforts of any people or employees. The rising labour cost is affecting the cost efficiency of the cars of the company. No current research for alternative fuel: The company has the aim of building fuel efficient and eco-friendly cars. In this context, they need to research well to find alternative solutions of the fossil fuels (Grnig and Khn 2015). However the lack of current research activities regarding this is a major weakness of the company (Ward and Peppard, 2016). High shipping costs: The recreation cars are very huge in size, which is the reason of high shipping costs of those. This is hampering the price of the cars. Weak internet presence: The most effective way of promoting any products or services is the internet. In this context, the company has very less activities in the internet. Opportunities: Increasing RV target market: 12,000 individuals are entering in the target market of the recreation vehicles which is a great opportunity to the company to expand the business and the target market of the company and achieve the desired level of sustainability. Young adults entering the market: The young adults are very interested in the sue of the caravans or the recreation vehicles. These people have a lot of money to invest for their fun and adventure. This is also a big opportunity to the company to have major profits from the business in the upcoming times. Tax deduction from the IRS as a second mortgage: IRS has deducted the tax of the company as a second mortgage, which is an opportunity to the company for reducing the cost of the company and increase the profitability of the company. Returning customers: The customers who are using the RV of the company are satisfied well and they are returning to the company for new models with advance facilities. They are also referring the company to others. This opportunity is helping the company to expand their business. Threats: Instability of oil prices: The increasing oil price is a major threat of the company. The RVs are generally require a lot of fuel for operating. The company is trying to develop the vehicles as fuels efficient, but they also have a limit. The price of the fuels is increasing in a high rate which is affecting the business of the company (Mols 2013). Current economic state: Current economic status of the country is not so good, which is affecting the business of the company as the products are too costly. Low customer satisfaction: The company is unable to understand the actual requirements and factors needed to satisfy them due to low level of communication with them. This is a major threat to the business of the company. External Environment Analysis (PESTEL): Political: As Jayco is one of the best recreation car manufacturers in Australia, therefore, the political factors such as the government policy, instability or the political stability of the country in the overseas markets, environmental law, labor law, and tax policy have a significant impact on the business of Jayco (Ibisworld 2016). The strict political factors of Australia can be influencing for Jaycos business operation. Economic: Economic growth of Australia has grown around 2.5 % on average in the previous two years (Ibisworld 2016). On the other hand, the recreation car industry requires an environment with good economic growth (Jayco 2016). Thus, it can be a discouraging factor for the business of Jayco in Australia. Social: The social factors are very influencing for the regression car business of Jayco. People are greatly fond of regression vehicles in all over the world (Yksel, 2012). This huge car demand is also same for Australia. People with high or medium income are interested to buy the regression vehicles (Rachet 2014). People always want to avoid the public transportation. That is why, they show more interest to get their own cars and that can be fulfilled by the regression vehicles manufactured by Jayco. Technological: Due to excessive fuel consumption by the regression vehicles, the environmental sustainability is hampered the most. Therefore, this organization has to take an alternative way out to mitigate such crucial issues (Grnig and Khn 2015). Thus, it can be done with the help of inventing another fuel that would not emit carbon. On the other hand, this organization can also take the help if latest technologies so that carbon emission can be minimized in order to maintain environmental sustainability. Environmental: The regression vehicles are the major reason of the carbon emission as these vehicles require more fossil fuels. Therefore, it increases the green house gas effect in environment (Yksel 2012). Thus, the research and development team of Jayco has to implement some alternative solutions so that the environmental sustainability can be maintained. Legal: There are several legal factors those can have huge impact on the business of Jayco. These important factors can be product safety, product labeling, consumer rights and laws, advertising standards, equal opportunities and health safety (Grnig and Khn 2015). This organization should be very careful while incorporating new effective or improvising their existing legal policies regarding the health and safety as well as the consumer rights and product safety and product labeling. Recommended Strategy Development for the Organization: Jayco Corporation Pty Ltd needs so many changes to catch up with the rest of manufacturing companies. The strategy that need to adopted for the company are given in the section below: Proper leadership style: They need to leaderships training forums and workshops for their employees. This will help in transforming the kind of leaders they have to be more effective. The structure of the organization needs to support everyone and not a superior type of structure that is currently hoarding ideas and being notorious in discouraging the employees. For any organization to thrive they need took keenly on their leadership structure, their organizational structure and the handling of their employees. Use of internet and social media: They need to use the internet and the social media platform for the promotion of the products and facilities provided by them. The social media platform will also help them to directly communicate with the customer and understand their requirements. In this way, they will be able to give the superior level of customer satisfaction. Research and Development: High level of research and development activities is required for the development of the eco-friendly RVs. The company is currently not giving high focus in this area. They need to focus in the innovation in the area of fuel efficiency and alternative fuels. Conclusion: The business industry and business environment of Jayco Corporation Pty Ltd have been analyzed in this report. The company has a good brand image in the target market and a developed market through the whole world. The SWOT and PESTEL analysis have been done and after that a strategy has been recommended for the development of the business strategy of the company. Motivation to the workers is imperative as well as having the best kind of leaders as well as managers. The kind of leadership skills tend to evolve with time and it is congruent that the impediments of rigidity be avoided at all costs. The company need to give focus in the promotional, communicational and RD activities. References: Brown, S., Bessant, J.R. and Lamming, R., 2013. Strategic operations management. Routledge. Bull, J.W., Jobstvogt, N., Bhnke-Henrichs, A., Mascarenhas, A., Sitas, N., Baulcomb, C., Lambini, C.K., Rawlins, M., Baral, H., Zhringer, J. and Carter-Silk, E., 2016. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats: A SWOT analysis of the ecosystem services framework. Ecosystem Services, 17, pp.99-111. Eden, C. and Ackermann, F., 2013. Making strategy: The journey of strategic management. Sage. Eid, R. and El-Gohary, H., 2013. The impact of E-marketing use on small business enterprises' marketing success. The Service Industries Journal, 33(1), pp.31-50. Grnig, R. and Khn, R., 2015. Global Environmental Analysis. InThe Strategy Planning Process(pp. 89-96). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Hill, C.W., Jones, G.R. and Schilling, M.A., 2014. Strategic management: theory: an integrated approach. Cengage Learning. Hitt, M.A., Ireland, R.D. and Hoskisson, R.E., 2012. Strategic management cases: competitiveness and globalization. Cengage Learning. Ibisworld.com.au. 2016.Recreational Vehicle Manufacturing in Australia Market Research | IBISWorld. [online] Available at: https://www.ibisworld.com.au/industry/recreational-vehicle-manufacturing.html [Accessed 10 Aug. 2016]. Jayco.com.au. 2016.Jayco Australia | Our Company. [online] Available at: https://www.jayco.com.au/about-us/our-company/ [Accessed 10 Aug. 2016]. Kapferer, J.N., 2012. The new strategic brand management: Advanced insights and strategic thinking. Kogan page publishers. Mols, N.P., 2013. The Internet and the banks strategic distribution channel decisions. International Journal of Bank Marketing. Percy, L. and Rosenbaum-Elliott, R., 2016. Strategic advertising management. Oxford University Press. Rachet, B., 2014. PESTEL analysis and Porters Five Forces For Innocent Drinks Company.Docs. school Publications. Rosenbaum-Elliott, R., Percy, L., Elliott, R.H. and Pervan, S., 2015. Strategic brand management. Oxford University Press, USA. Scott, D.M., 2015. The new rules of marketing and PR: How to use social media, online video, mobile applications, blogs, news releases, and viral marketing to reach buyers directly. John Wiley Sons. Shih, B.Y., Chen, C.Y. and Chen, Z.S., 2013. An empirical study of an internet marketing strategy for search engine optimization. Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing Service Industries, 23(6), pp.528-540. Simons, R., 2013. Levers of control: how managers use innovative control systems to drive strategic renewal. Harvard Business Press. Ward, J. and Peppard, J., 2016. The Strategic Management of Information Systems: Building a Digital Strategy. John Wiley Sons. Wilson, R.M. and Gilligan, C., 2012. Strategic marketing management. Routledge. Yksel, I., 2012. Developing a multi-criteria decision making model for PESTEL analysis.International Journal of Business and Management,7(24), p.52.
Tuesday, April 21, 2020
Memory is one of the important roles of the mind. However, it is often disregarded, unless needed. People typically do not think about memory except when they really need to retrieve or recall important details. People usually think about memory only when it fails them. Memory refers to the processes that are used to acquire, store, retain and later retrieve information. It is a function that is basic and integral to all cognitive and psychological activities. There are three major processes involved in memory: encoding, storage and retrieval.In order to form new memories, information must be changed to usable form, which occurs through the process known as encoding. Once information has been successfully encoded, it must be stored in memory for later use. Much of this stored memory lies outside of our awareness most of the time, except when we actually need to use it. The retrieval process allows us to bring stored memories into conscious awareness. We will write a custom essay sample on Retention and Chunking or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page There are many ways of classifying the human mind and its ability to retain information. One of the most often used classifications are based on the duration of memory retention, specifically the sensory, long term memory and short term memory which is our focus in this report. In Freudian psychology, the short term memory (STM) would be referred to as the conscious mind. Paying attention to sensory memories generates the information in STM. Most of the information stored in working memory will be stored for approximately 20 to 30 seconds. While many of our STMs are quickly forgotten, attending to this information allows it to continue on the next stage, long-term memory.However, there are different control processes that can be applied once the information is transferred into the short term memory. Two of these are rehearsal and chunking. Rehearsal is the mental repetition of information to retain longer in STM. This is the way to keep the information in STM refreshed even if it is stored in the STM for a relatively long period of time; that is if one keeps rehearsing the information. On the other hand, chunking is a unit of memory, where overcoming STMs that can be remembered or retained are five-to-nine nformation. A chunk could refer to digits, words, chess positions, or peoples faces. The concept of chunking and the limited capacity of short term memory became a basic element of all subsequent theories of memory. According to Ebbinghaus, short term memory was postulated to explain temporary retention of information as distinct from long term retention of information. Short term memory acts to also store current sensory information and to rehearse new information from sensory buffers and has limited capacity. Loss of information stored in short term memory has the same characteristics as loss of information stored in long term memory. It happens quicker because it involves information that is not learned as well. What we call the learning process is transferring information from short term to long term memory and is a physiological process. Retention is the persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.Individuals can briefly recall short lists, but as the lists increases in length, participants will need more time to recall the lists. The number that can be recalled before errors begin to occur is called the memory span, and it has been interpreted as the limit on the storage space available in STM (Klatzky, 1975). As more items enter STM, the strength of previous information fades away. In cognitive psychology and mnemonics, chunking refers to a strategy for making more efficient use of STM by recording information.